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The Impacts of Adaptive Driving Styles on Trust in Level 2 Automated Vehicles
DescriptionThe increased popularity of autonomous vehicles (AVs) necessitates higher understanding of the factors that affect trust and performance regarding AV use. Trust is a major factor, especially because current AVs are partially automated and may require manual takeover; mis-calibrated trust may impact safe driver-vehicle interaction. This study aimed to test the effects of adaptive AV driving styles under different road events on drivers’ trust and corresponding driving behaviors. Thirty-six people participated in simulated drives involving adaptive SAE Level 2 AV algorithms and pedestrian- and traffic-related road events. Results showed higher trust levels in response to pedestrian-related events and indicated that a trust-based adaptive heuristic may fall short compared to preference-based adaptation and fixed AV modes. Drivers with higher trust in AVs generally preferred more aggressive driving styles and exhibited fewer takeover attempts. Findings from this study can support future driver-aware AVs that can adapt its behavior for improved driver-vehicle interaction.